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Baked technology production process

The first stage of powder bulk preparation is the easiest stage of whole process. It is very similar to pressed product technology whereby fillers such as mica, talc, pigments and pearls are mixed in the vessel, and then the binder is added and the bulk is mixed again. For pigment, loaded bulk time of the mixing is longer than for the pearl one. Mixing for too long a period of time for pearl loaded bulk may destroy its structure and the product may be not as shiny and glittery as it should be. One of the biggest advantages of baked products is the potential to add in the formulation a high level of pearl pigments. In pressed products there are constraints imposed by the technology process and pearl content with its particle size is limited. The powdered components can be pre-contacted with a liquid binder and thoroughly mixed and pulverised before introduction of the solvent. Solvent changes the rheology of the bulk into a semi-liquid texture. The volume of the solvent depends on bulk type and it is carefully selected for each mixture. Some of the fillers like talc adsorb a higher quantity of solvent than the others. So to get the right consistency you need to add a higher volume of the solvent.

Powder bulk preparation

Talc or mica as the main filler in the composition? This is the first question that we should consider. The absorption capacity and after-feel in application of these two raw materials are very different. Selection of the right proportion in the composition is the most important factor.

Specialists with experience in pressed product technology are able to handle this area very easily. The physical-chemical parameters of the raw materials directly affect the features of the finished product. When one creates a new formulation based on this information we can assume the right proportion of each ingredient has been included in the mixture.

Solvent selection and powder bulk wetting

The biggest challenge is to find the right liquid binder. In pressed products it determines the quality of the product. In baked products it is more complicated because besides the binder, we also need to select the right solvent and its content in the composition. The solvent must be a volatile substance and easily removable from the finished product. It should be neutral in order to avoid a reaction between the mixture components. The most unpredictable are reactions between pigments or pearls with the rest of the mixture. The solvent needs to guarantee product stability over time, and it should not change the properties of the product after a period of time. And what is most important is that it cannot increase the cost of the production. The most common used solvent is water.

Process of dosing

The process is divided in two stages: 

Applying the desired product dosage 

Correct shape forming

In baked products, the technology available enables a possibility to achieve a variety of shape and colour combinations. Colour arrangement depends on the technique of dosing and it is easy changeable. By deciding for a marble effect product it is necessary to know that none of the products will be identical.

Drying operation

Drying is the last step in the production process. It is ideally achieved by heating, but other methods of drying, such as ambient temperature air drying, can also be used. The semi-finished product is placed in an oven, while parameters like time and temperature of drying depend on the type and quantity of the solvent. The size of the godet also needs to be considered. A large size of godet or high stamp products require a longer period in the oven. In most cases the temperature of drying should not exceed 50°C. After the drying operation, the humidity of the semi-finished product needs to be measured. Humid or wet products, especially with water added to the mixture, are extremely vulnerable to microbiological contamination. It may also evaporate in the container which causes a lot of trouble and additional work. These mistakes reduce production capacity and the quality of the finished goods.

Quality control

To release the semi-finished product to the assembling process, first it is checked by the quality control department. Just as for pressed products, control tests like the drop test and crash test are conducted. In the case of baked products, limits and test standards may change, especially when the shape of the product is easy to break or with a very high stamp. Sometimes when the test results are not acceptable, the bulk needs to be hardened. One of the ways is with the addition of a rheology modifier. Most often it increases the viscosity of the solvent. The rheology modifier can be mixed with the solvent, or incorporated onto the powdered components. The simplest way is also to increase the liquid binder content to build a stronger structure. The same solution is used when the product is too soft during application or it is crumbling. On the raw material market there are a lot of fillers available to use as a powder binder, but to make them effective they need to be selected individually to each formulation.

Conclusion

Baked eye shadow is an easy recognisable product and it stands out on the market with unique form, colour, and overall appearance. It has a creamy texture, and a soft and velvety after-feel.

The unquestionable advantage of this product is the ability to get amazing metallic, glittery or pearly effects. This product is also interesting with regard to its application. Baked formulas compared to pressed formulas make an ultra-smooth application. Baked also allows the product to be used wet or dry; when using dry, it provides traditional eye shadow colour to eyelids. When using wet, it increases the colour payoff for a more dramatic look and it also increases its staying power. It can be used as a multifunctional product ‘2 in 1’ like an eye shadow and eyeliner in one, using only two different applicators. With the shadow end of a double ended brush the colour may be applied over the entire lid. As an eye liner using the liner end of a double ended brush, it can be applied along the top and bottom lash lines.


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